What are Form 45, 46, and 47 – Form 45, Form 46, and Form 47 are important documents for the preparation of election results. These documents are prepared for the submission of election results to the Election Commission of Pakistan from every constituency.

Pakistan General Elections 2024 Mechanism:

Here you will get the necessary information about the mechanism of the General Elections of Pakistan 2024.

Form 45 of the Election Commission of Pakistan

Form 45 is prepared by the Presiding Officer of a polling station. The presiding officer of a polling station is the charge person of a specific polling station in a constituency.

Furthermore, at the end of the polling time, the presiding officer prepares Form 45 according to the number of votes got by every party candidate. In this way, Form 45 is the detail of the total number of votes cast in a specific polling station as well and it also explains the number of votes got by every single candidate.

Form 46 Election Commission Commission

Form 46 is also prepared by the Presiding Officer who is in charge or heading a polling station. It contains the information about the ballot papers.

Moreover, the Form 46 is about the total ballot papers used and also details about the leftover stock of or booklet of ballot papers.

The information about the Ballot papers or Ballot books is entered according to the serial numbers written on the ballot papers.

Form 47 of Election Commission Pakistan

Form 47 is also a very important document that contains the final results of a constituency and it is issued by the RO (Returning Officer).

Similarly, all the POs(Presiding Officers) from various polling stations submit the results of their polling stations to RO for final preparation of the results of the constituency.

So, after compiling the results the Returning Officer prepares the final results on Form 47 and announces the winning candidate from the specific constituency.


A Country or state is an independent and sovereign government that controls a defined and bounded area, which is internationally recognized by other states. It is important for the survival of a state that its people remain happy and safe. So the priority of the state is to improve the quality of life.

For this, a country or state formulate a comprehensive set of policies.

Foreign policy is one such policy to achieve the quality of life of the people of a country.

AS new fissures appear in the governing elites in Pakistan, the fulcrum of global politics seems to be running away from the country

Pakistan is part of the greater Indian subcontinent and is situated at the crossroads of the Middle East and Asia. Iran and Afghanistan on the west, China on the North, Jammu Kashmir on the Northeast, India on the east, and the Arabian Sea on the south. And so, the region where Pakistan lies is important politically, economically, and militarily. Pakistan plays an important role in global politics and international stability.

The geographical location could be an asset as well as a liability depending upon the context.

Pakistan is the direct neighbor of the two most populous/nuclear countries.

Buffer state between gas-rich Central and gas-poor India.

A state between the oil-rich Middle East and oil import-dependent India.

It is part of the biggest market for goods/services -military and consumer.

This assignment explains the challenges faced by the foreign policy of Pakistan in its rapidly changing regional Apparatus and how to respond to them.

What is Regional Apparatus?

The Regional Apparatus of a country refers to the threat posed and opportunities available to a country from the conflicts and or cooperation among the countries in the region due to global or regional politics which could adversely or positively, impact upon the efforts of a country to safeguard its national interest.

Resultantly there are four determinants  of a country‘s regional apparatus

  1. Geographical location(discussed in the introduction)
  2. Regional dynamics
  3. Global politics
  4. Trends and events

Regional Apparatus  – Regional Dynamics

We have one question how the country is affected by the regional conflicts and crises ?

The country is affected by the regional conflicts and crises. Crises is basically a time of intense difficulty or danger when we take important decisions and when wars among the adjacent countries and crises occurs then the country affected.

If we take the example of civil war which is the war between the citizens of same country then the country affected .

Geopolitical configurations also related to the formal or informal alliances among the regional countries . These alliances and antagonisms are the blessings of global powers . Global powers may be political power, power between the nations and army power.

Regional dynamics – affecting  Pakistan

Regional dynamics have many affects on Pakistan ,as ;

  1. India -America strategic partnership
  2. China -Pakistan  economic corridor
  3. China -Iran strategic Agreement
  4. Shanghai regional cooperation
  5. India -Hegemonic designs

1.India- America strategic partnership

India -America partnership was a planning for the organization. That was the long-term planning in which India becomes the partner of America but this strategy had negative impacts.

2China-Pakistan economic corridor

This is also the organization that occurs between Pakistan and China for economic corridor. This organization was for the development, growth and peace in the economy of Pakistan. This organization had positive impacts on Pakistan.

3.China – Iran strategic Agreement

This was the planning between China or Iran for the agreement which has positive impacts on Pakistan.

4.Shanghai Regional Cooperation

This was the Eurasian political , Economic and security organization. This was the largest organization in terms of geographical scope or population.

This was the largest organization because it covered 60% area or  40% world population.

5.India -Hegemonic designs

This was also the planning in which India had many powers authorities and leadership but they retain in India and now open these powers ,leadership and authorities called India-hegemonic designs.

They had also many regional dynamics like as;

Russia -India friendship

This was the planning which had negative impacts on Pakistan.

Iran-India friendship

They had neutral impacts on Pakistan.

India -Afghanistan friendship

They also had negative impacts which affect the Pakistan.


In global politics we include global agenda in which nearer countries or neighbour countries provide diplomatic support, economic help and military aid to each other but their mutual interaction would have serious impacts on the foreign policies of each country .

In global politics we use two-way Street term which related to major powers .Major powers also affected by regional conflicts which causes confusion in fashion competition.

For defending the geographical frontiers of the state ,it is necessary to formulate and practice the vibrant foreign policy

There are three basic needs of a foreign policy:

  1. The number one  deals with taking cognizance of the routine developments in all around world  and formulating policies as an effective response.
  2. The number two  requirement is of a proactive nature. It comprises tailoring a particular  policy or policies to project the interests of the country so the world in a manner that it moulds the opinions to generate the understanding and acceptability of the narrative.
  3. The number three component deals with the framing the urgent  response to the emergent situations arising out of wars, earth quakes, floods, or other catastrophes.

Global politics-Affecting Pakistan

1.Advent of cold war 2 :

This was the war without powers and nuclear powers called cold war because this was the political ,social, ideological informational war  without nuclear powers .

This war occurs between the developed countries China or declining country America in which the United States of America was diminished in power Geo politically , militarily, financially, economically etc.

2.China efforts of global connectivity :

This was the efforts for development ,growth and peace in economic of Pakistan.

 In this efforts ,Pakistan and China had no benefits but it had positive impacts because it had benefits for Afghanistan, Iran and Central Asia.

3.American – Sanction on Iran :

This was the planning of America in which America has sanction on Iran and restarting the economic growth of Iran which had negative impacts on Iran and Pakistan.

4.Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry :

Due to the rivalry of Iran to Saudi-Arabia causes retarding oil supplies, expatriates and terrorism which had negative impacts on Pakistan and also many countries affected.

5.China -Russia friendship :

China -Russia friendship had positive impacts on Pakistan because china and Russia friendship give many opportunities to Pakistan like economically and militarily or financially.

REGIONAL APPARATUS – Trends and events

In trends and events every country affected directly or indirectly by any significant event or trend happening anywhere in the world

Some events affects every country like :

1. Climate change :

When global climate or environment changes then the overall countries affected.

2.Nuclear proliferation :

If we use nuclear weapons then every country affected because nuclear powers had many harmful effects which was dangerous for every country.

3.COVID-19 :

This was the disease which spread all over the world and affected all countries in the world .In one year of Covid-19 ,1.62 million people all over the world ,died, 72.8 million people diseased.People could not see off their loved ones before dying .

Some trends affects every country like ;

Human rights movements :

Human-right movements like colonism ,imperialism, slavery , segregation etc.

Trends and events – affecting Pakistan

There was many events and trends which affects Pakistan like;

1.Religious extremism in Pakistan and India :

Religious extremism also affects Pakistan because in the country of Pakistan ,Muslims and Hindus live .Muslims loves Islam and Indians loves Hindus which causes conflicts between the India and Pakistan and had impacts on the Pakistan.

2.Rising sub-nationalism :

Rising sub-nationalism also had bad impacts on the Pakistan. In the Pakistan ,only the Muslims nation established but now this nation divided into sub-nations because this nations contains Muslims, Hindus and Sikh which causes sub-nationalism and had bad impacts on Pakistan.

3.Global terrorism :

Global terrorism affects the every country in the world . because global terrorism causes global conflicts in every country which causes wars among the countries. So, global terrorism is dangerous for all countries.

4.Arms Race :

It occurs when two or more countries increases the size and quality of military resources to gain military and political superiority over one and another. This had also bad affects all over the world and causes wars among the countries and citizens of same country.

5.Nuclear proliferation :

When we use nuclear weapon and nuclear power for wars than it had harmful affects on the countries and produces dangerous gases which is harmful for humans ,animals , birds etc.

Nuclear weapons had bad affects on countries and destroyed the whole world.

6.COVID-19 :

This was the disease which had harmful impacts on countries and affected the all countries in the world .Due to the COVID-19 ,many people diseased and died . Due to this pandemic, population rate decreased .

The National Assembly of Pakistan, which is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan, has a total of 342 seats. These seats are allocated among the four provinces of Pakistan, as well as the federal capital territory and a few other special areas. The allocation of seats is based on the population of each province and area, with more populous areas having more seats in the National Assembly.

In addition to the 342 directly elected seats, the National Assembly also has 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. These reserved seats are allocated to political parties based on the number of directly elected seats they win in the general elections and are filled by candidates nominated by the parties.

Members of the National Assembly are elected for a term of five years through a first-past-the-post system in their respective constituencies. The political party that wins the most directly elected seats in the general elections forms the federal government, and its leader becomes the Prime Minister of Pakistan.

National Assembly MNA Winners

The winners of the National Assembly seats in Pakistan depend on the results of the general elections, which are held every five years. The most recent general elections were held in July 2018, and the next general elections are scheduled to be held in 2023.

In the 2018 general elections, the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) emerged as the largest political party in the National Assembly, winning 115 out of the 272 directly elected seats. The Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) won 64 seats, while the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) won 43 seats. Several smaller political parties and independent candidates also won seats in the National Assembly.

Following the elections, the PTI formed the federal government with Imran Khan as the Prime Minister of Pakistan. The government also included several smaller political parties as coalition partners.

It is important to note that the political landscape in Pakistan is constantly evolving, and the winners of the National Assembly seats in the upcoming elections may differ from those in the 2018 elections.

What is the number of reserved seats in the National Assembly of Pakistan?

There are currently 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities.

The 70 reserved seats for women are allocated to political parties based on their share of the directly elected seats in the National Assembly. The political parties submit lists of candidates for the reserved seats, and the seats are allocated to the parties based on the proportion of directly elected seats they have won. For example, if a party has won 20% of the directly elected seats, it will be allocated 14 of the 70 reserved seats.

The 10 reserved seats for religious minorities are also allocated to political parties based on their share of the directly elected seats in the National Assembly. These seats are open to candidates from minority communities, including Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, and others.

The members who are elected on reserved seats have the same rights and privileges as directly elected members, and they participate in the proceedings of the National Assembly. The reserved seats are intended to ensure adequate representation for women and minorities in the National Assembly and to promote diversity and inclusiveness in the country’s political system.

National Assembly Constituencies of Pakistan

Members of the National Assembly are elected for a term of five years, and they participate in the legislative process by introducing and debating bills, asking questions, and holding the government accountable for its policies and actions.

Pakistan is divided into numerous constituencies for National Assembly elections, and the number of MNAs elected from each constituency depends on its population. For example, a more populous constituency may have multiple MNAs representing it, while a less populous constituency may have only one MNA.

General Elections of Pakistan 2024

The General Elections of Pakistan 2024 has been conducted on the 8th of February 2024. This was the general election for the national assembly of Pakistan as well as for the rest of the four provincial assemblies i.e. Punjab, Sindh, KhyberPakhtunkhawa, and Balochistan.

Election results 2024 party position:

The election results of 2024 in Pakistan show very interesting and astonishing party positions and individual situations of MNAs and MPAs.

In these elections, Pakistan Tehrik-Insaf (PTI) has emerged as the largest winning party in National level elections. Moreover, in Punjab province, there is a neck-to-neck competition between Pakistan Tehrik Insaf and the Pakistan Muslim League (N).

Further, PTI has also clean sweep the provincial elections of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). In this way, PTI is in a position to form the provincial government in KPK as a whole. Additionally, the party is also in a position to give a tough time to PML (N) in the center and Punjab.

The election results of the 2024 party position have shown surprising results from all over Pakistan. The General Elections of Pakistan, 2024 that were conducted on 8th February 2024 ended with shocking results.

The Pakistan General Elections 2024 was different from the past. Because in this election the largest Political party leader i.e. Mr. Imran Khan is in prison.

Moreover, the Pakistan Tehrik Insaf Party symbol i.e. Bat is also taken from the party due to the alleged deficiencies in intra-party elections.

Related: Political Parties

Total Number of Seats in National Assembly of Pakistan

Currently, there are 336 seats in the National Assembly in Pakistan. Previously, this number was 342. In this number, there are 70 reserved seats. Sixty (60) for women and ten (10) for non-muslims.

Furthermore, there are 266 seats on which the elections are held and 166 seats of Members of the National Assembly (MNAs) are needed to form the government at the center.

Political Parties the Power of User-Centric Politics

What are the characteristics of a Political Party?

Characteristics of a Political Party – There are some characteristics of political parties that are working all over the world. Such as they have political leaders, political partie have leaders/chairmen, contest elections, have political symbols, take part in elections, make laws and public policies, and work for the public interests. So, here you will learn about the characteristics of a Political Party.

The political partie are the main feature of a democratic system of governance all over the world. Either the country has a parliamentary system (where the Prime Minister has all administrative powers) of government or a presidential system (where the President has all administrative powers) of government. So, the characteristics of a Political Party are important to learn in the modern political system.

What are the types of Political Parties?

Conservative Political Parties:

Conservative political parties are such partie that stick to the old and conservative policies. These political parties do not initiate any new projects and also do not like modern technologies.

Liberal Political Parties:

Liberal parties are such parties that follow modern trends. These political parties always look for new things. They also like moderation and always come up with new ideas and trends.

Labour Political Parties:

Labour Political Parties are such parties that support the politics and laws that are formulated in favor of labor or workers. They support the laborers who work in factories, in fields, and small organizations.

Peasant Political Parties:

Peasant Political Partie are such parties who support the rights of peasants. They formulate policies that are in the support and favor of peasants. They offer free-of-interest loans.

Rightest Political Parties:

The rightest political parties are religious parties. Their motto is to promote their thoughts while living within the limits of the religion of the majority of the people.

Leftist Political Parties:

Leftist Political Partie are also known as liberal political parties. They tend to modern policies and trends.

Main characteristics of Political Parties:

The features of political parties vary from country to country due to many local, cultural, political, economic and social factors. These are the factors which shape the political parties.

Political Parties have Ideology and Platform:

Ideology is the term or belief on which a political party is established. The majority of the political partie all around the world are established when a group of people believe in the same idea. Political parties typically have a set of beliefs, values, and goals that form their ideological foundation. They develop platforms outlining their stance on various issues such as the economy, social policies, foreign affairs, and more.

Political Parties
Political Parties

Membership Feature

Political parties have also a feature of membership. It means they offer other common people to become part of their party through membership.

Moreover, parties often have members who support their ideology and work towards their goals. These members may include activists, donors, elected officials, and ordinary citizens. Members are the workers of political parties and members of one party may change the party in the later stage.

Party Leadership:

Political partie have hierarchical structures with leaders at various levels, including national, regional, and local. These leaders may include party chairpersons, presidents, secretaries, and other officials who oversee party operations and decision-making processes.

Election Participation:

There is a process of election in almost every democratic state. So, political parties participate in electoral processes by nominating candidates to run for public office. Those political parties who won the election come into power.

What are the characteristics of a mass political party?

The mass political party represents the party of the majority of the people or masses in a specific country.

Famous Political Party Terms:

Democrat Political Party

A democratic political party is the party of the majority. A member or supporter of the Democratic Party in the United States, which typically leans left-of-center on the political spectrum.

Republican Political Party:

This is an American-based political party. A member or supporter of the Republican Party in the United States, which typically leans right-of-center on the political spectrum.

There is a two-party system in the United States. One is the Democratic Party and the other is Republican Party.

Conservative Political Party:

A political ideology or party favoring traditional institutions and cautious progress, often advocating for limited government intervention in the economy and traditional social values.

Liberal Political Party:

A liberal political party is such party that supports change and moderates things in society. A political ideology or party favoring progressive change, often advocating for social equality, civil liberties, and government intervention to address social and economic issues.

Socialist Political Party:

The idea of a socialist political party is based in the USSR. It is the opposite of a capitalist political party. A political ideology or party advocating for public ownership or control of the means of production and distribution of goods and services, to achieve social and economic equality.

Communist Political Party:

A political ideology or party advocating for the establishment of a classless society where the means of production are owned by the community as a whole.

Political Parties
Political Parties

Green Party:

A political party focused on environmentalism, social justice, and sustainability. Green party is seen very often, but it is liked by many people around the world.

Labour Party:

A center-left political party in various countries, often associated with representing the interests of the working class and advocating for social welfare programs.


A political ideology or party advocating for the interests and culture of a particular nation or group, often emphasizing sovereignty and protectionist policies.


A far-right authoritarian political ideology or party characterized by dictatorial power, extreme nationalism, suppression of dissent, and strong control of the economy and society.


A political ideology or party advocating for minimal government intervention in both the economy and personal freedoms, emphasizing individual liberty and voluntary cooperation.

Social Democratic Party:

A center-left political party advocating for a mixed economy, social welfare programs, and progressive social policies, while still operating within a democratic framework.

National Front:

A far-right political party or movement characterized by nationalist, anti-immigration, and sometimes xenophobic ideologies.

Progressive Party

Imran Khan Jalsa Schedule 2023

Imran Khan Jalsa Schedule
Imran Khan Jalsa Schedule

Pakistan Tehrik Insaf Leader Imran Khan has announced his schedule for the political rallies and jalsa for the ongoing elections at provincial level as well as for National level.

The central leader of Pakistan Tehrik Insaf has announced that PTI will conduct Jalsa (Politial meetings across Punjab in coming days. There will be Jalsa in Muridke, Ghakar, Mandi Bahau Din, Lala Musa and Attock.

The start of these political Jalsa will begin from 10th of May. But due to the imprisonment of Imran Khan on 9th of May the upcoming Jalsa schedules have been postponed.

Related: Pakistan Tehrik Insaf Dilemma

Imran Khan Jalsa Schedule in May 2023

During the month of May 2023, the PTI leadership has announced Jalsa in various cities and towns of Punjab for coming election of Punjab and federal government.

Jalsa Schedule of Imran Khan

  1. 6th May Mianwali

Mianwali Jalsa of Imran Khan will be expecting a great gathering due to the native town of Imran Khan.

  1. 10th May Jhelum

Jhelum is home town of PTI Leader Fawad Chaudhry, therefore, this Jalsa of Imran Khan will also a big show.

  1. 12th May Attock

In Attock Imran Khan has arranged a Jalsa on 12th of May 2023.

  1. 14th May Sialkot

Sialkot is the hometown of PTI leader Usman Dar and there is expectation of big show there.

  1. 15th May Faisalabad
  2. 19th May Chakwal
  3. KPK Jalsa schedule to be posted soon!

UK visa polich 2023 is one of the major breakthroughs that are introduced by United Kingdom in the recent initiatives after departing from European Union or commonly known as BREXIT (Britain Exit).

UK Visa Policy

After the UK has made lots of other decisions to make its economy strong and stable. In the scenario, UK government has also introduced a new visa policy for the immigrants from all over the world.

UK student Visa Policy

In the recent move UK has introduced the student visa policy for the students from across the world. In this way, UK is inviting the people from across the world.

In a recent move the Russian state has installed nuclear weapons on the border of Belarus. This move was taken in the retaliation of American and European help to Ukraine in the shape of supply of ammunition, aircrafts, tanks and anti- ballistic missile defence system.

The president Putin has signed a defence agreement with the head of Belarus for instalation of nuclear weapons.

Pakistan Tehrik Insaf is passing through the tough times of its history. The political leaders are leaving the parties due to May 9 incidents and pressure from some forces.

This is the test case for the leader of PTI Imran Khan and its leaders in Pakistan. There is high pressure on PTI.

Politicians Left PTI

So far almost more than 50 leaders of national and provincial leaders have left Pakistan Tehrik Insaf and departed from Imran Khan. Among them Fawad Chaudhry, Fiaz ul Hassan Chohan and Jamshed Chema are a few ones.

Future of PTI

The future of PTI seems in a close corner, but it is famous about Pakistan that everything is possible in Pakistan. Almost same situation was facing by PMLN and PPP after the year 2018. So, no one say any thing about the future of Tehrik Insaf. But in a near future there are everywhere difficulties and tough time for PTI and Imran Khan.

Syria Joins Arab League after 11 Years

What is Arab Spring 2011
What is Arab Spring 2011

The news is spreading all around that Syria Join the Arab League after 11 Years. This news is associated with many other events or developments that have happened in the region.

In fact, this is a major breakthrough that is developed by some states including Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, and China.

The Chinese state is trying to give a tough time to the United States of America due to the various counter strategies of the USA against the US.

Chinse Strategies to Counter USA in Asia

In the first step, China has normalized the ties between the Arab states in the Middle East. Because these Middle East states are rich in natural resources. On the other side, China needs energy resources in large amounts.

Furthermore, these Arab states are a big market for the giant industry of China. So, better law and order situation in these Arab states is in the best interest of China.

Related: Revival of Diplomatic Ties Between Saudi Arabia and Iran

China Policy in the South China Sea

The South China Sea is another flash point between China and America. China is claiming the possession of entire region and waters of the South China Sea. Whereas, the bordering states of the South China Sea, such as the Philippines, Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Taiwan are also claiming their possession of the South China Sea. In this way, the US is supporting these states against China.

Moreover, the importance of the South China Sea is also higher due to its strategic location. This sea is a transit point for world commercial ships. In this way, control over the South China Sea means you have control over a high percentage of commercial ships in the world.

Arab Spring 2011

The situation in Arab states become worse after the creation of a political situation in the Arab States that is popularly better known as ‘Arab Spring 2011’. As a result of this political dilemma the decades-old Monarchies, kingships, and dictatorships come to an end. people started talking about social rights, political rights, and greater freedom of speech.

Arab Spring and Tunisia

The Arab Spring political upset started from the African Muslim state of Tunisia. Where the decade-old kingship ended. The people started political agitation after the suicide of Bouzizi a vendor in Tunisia. So, in the ‘Domino effect’ all the neighboring states, like Egypt, Libya, Iraq, and Yemen follow the same pattern. In this way, the Arab Spring spread all over the Arab Muslim States where mostly there was a non-democratic setup.